Less than a week, 10 people in Kerala, India reportedly died from nipah disease. One of the victims who died was a nurse who helped patients in the hospital. The rest are residents whose homes are close and one family with three members.
Nipah is a dangerous disease that should be watched out for. In fact, WHO considers Nipah to be one of the essence of eight priority diseases and is parallel to Zika and Ebola.
Well , DokterSehat has summarized several sources to learn about, you can know more about Nipah disease. In this article, we will review about:
- What is Nipah disease?
- Spread of Nipah disease
- Symptoms of Nipah disease
- Treatment of Nipah disease
- Prevention of Nipkah disease
- KLB Nipah worldwide
- Cases of Nipah disease in Indonesia
Let’s review one by one!
# 1 What is Nipah?
Nipah disease is a type of disorder in the brain caused by the Nipah virus. This virus enters the body through animal brokers such as bats and pigs.
Viruses that are still in the body will immediately infect the brain and make a person coma within 24-48 hours before finally dying.
Nipah is classified as a zoonotic disease or disease in animals that can be transmitted to humans. This disease is classified as emerging or new because the first case occurred in 1998 ago in Malaysia.
Since that incident, the disease began to spread to several regions in South Asia such as India and Bangladesh. Almost every year there are cases of Nipah infection which lead to death.
The Nipah or henipavirus virus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae . The order of this virus is Mononegavirales . Viruses of this type are divided into two, first Hendravirus and the second Nipahvirus .
This disease is named Nipah because the first incident that was enough to make the world uproar was in the village of Nipah, Malaysia.
# 2. Spread of Nipah Disease
Nipah virus lives in the body of a bat of type or Pteropus sp. Although living in the body of the bats, the Nipah virus is in a state of sleep and does not kill bats.
The new nipah virus spreads when the bat is stressed due to changes in its ecosystem. In this condition, the virus can become active and enter the excretory tract and also the salivary glands.
After the virus is active, the dirt from the falling bat will contain the Nipah virus. Similar things also happen to fruits eaten by bats.
When fruit falls or dirt is on the ground eaten by animals such as pigs, the virus will enter. Pigs will become intermediaries ( intermediate hosts ) before they are transmitted to humans through direct contact or air.
Besides through pigs, the nipah virus can also be directly transmitted from bats to humans. In a number of cases in South Asia, transmission occurs directly as a result of residents eating fruit containing bat saliva.
# 3. Symptoms of Nipah disease
The Nipah virus that enters the body will experience an incubation period of 4-18 days. Furthermore, the virus will produce quite clear symptoms.
One of the symptoms that appear in Nipah sufferers is:
- High fever.
- Respiratory disorders such as cough and flu.
- Pain in muscles throughout the body.
If the condition is getting worse, sufferers will experience:
- Inflammation of the brain encehphalitis which causes dizziness is unbearable.
- Often nausea and vomiting.
The symptoms that appear above will develop into a coma within 24-48 hours. In this condition the chances of survival will be very small.
# 4. Treatment of Nipah Disease
Because Nipah disease is spread as an emerging and new, there is no medicine that can be used to cure it.
Until now help has been done to reduce the effects of inflammation on the body, especially the brain in the form of supportive care .
The Nipah virus has not existed until now. Researchers are still having trouble making vaccines that can make the body immune from these viruses that are difficult to detect and prevent.
# 5. Prevention of Nipah Disease
The Nipah virus is carried by bat-type bats which usually eat fruits.
How do you prevent it from getting infected with the Nipah virus?
Of course we have to know which areas are explored or used as a place to live for these animals.
Currently, bats are spread throughout the world, including Indonesia. So, the possibility of the spread of this disease always exists in every country especially those close to Malaysia, India and Bangladesh.
Some doctors also recommend that we not carelessly eat fruit that falls to the ground. This fruit usually falls after being eaten by bats, so the possibility of saliva sticks quite large.
Furthermore, do not blind contact with either wild or preserved bats. The possibility of transmission still exists either through touch or through splashes of urine and also dirt.
When outside, especially the forest that is the habitat of bats, make sure to use a mask. Next, also use clothes that are thick enough to protect the skin.
Don’t forget to also use shoes if you want to go anywhere. Stepping on dirt from bats can cause viruses to enter the body.
For those who own farms, especially pigs, be aware of what livestock eat. Do not let the pig eat fruit that falls from above because there is a possibility of saliva from the bat.
If there are infected pigs, as much as possible to isolate them so that the virus is not contagious. Farmers are also not allowed to make direct contact to avoid transmission.
# 6. Nipah Outbreak Around the World
The Nipah case first occurred in 1998-1999 in Malaysia and immediately became an extraordinary event (KLB). In this first case 265 people were infected and 105 of them died.
The second worst case that has a large case fatality occurred in West Bengal, India. At that time there were 66 people infected with the virus and 49 of them died in 2001.
The Nipah case continues to occur every year, especially in South Asian countries like Bangladesh. For the 6th consecutive year the country experienced an Nipah outbreak with cases of deaths above 65%.
The existence of various extraordinary events that occur throughout the world, WHO considers this virus very dangerous, even the average case fatality reaches 74.5% from 2008-2012.
# 7. Cases of Nipah in Indonesia
Indonesia entered into the distribution area or the spread of the Nipah virus. Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, and parts of Papua are included in that zone.
Although the virus could easily enter Indonesia, since the first case in 1998 in Malaysia, the country is still sterile. There has not been one case of Nipah infection that is quite dangerous.
Based on the data described by Sendow et al. (2008) all pigs in Indonesia are free from Nipah infection. Furthermore, some samples of bats in North Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi also do not have a nipah virus even though the antibodies have been formed.
Hopefully the review of Nipah disease, including the emerging species above, can provide additional knowledge.
We recommend that we start being careful not to get infected with the virus