Infectious disease is a disease that can spread from one person to another. Transmission from this disease usually occurs when contact occurs between people who are sick or through intermediaries.
Infectious diseases can also move indirectly. For example when touching objects that are in public places or at home. After that, the germs can infect if you touch your mouth, eyes or nose without washing your hands after touching these objects.
Usually the nature of infectious diseases is acute, has a short duration, and is usually caused by pathogens. The following are various types of infectious diseases that you must know, including:
The first infectious disease is diarrhea. Disease caused by this virus causes a person to experience defecation. This disease is characterized by bowel movements more than three times a day, with the consistency of liquid stools, and can be accompanied by blood and / or mucus .
Although many people consider diarrhea to be a harmless disease, in fact this infectious disease can risk causing death, especially if it is experienced in infants. Diarrhea is transmitted through water, soil or food contaminated with viruses, bacteria or parasites.
Transmission of this disease can be avoided if someone is diligent in washing hands with antiseptic soap before eating. In addition, don’t forget to eat cooked foods and avoid raw foods from places that have not been guaranteed cleanliness.
Mosquito bites are a way of transmission from this infectious disease. Malaria sufferers generally show symptoms of fever, chills, sweating, muscle aches, headaches, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. People living in malaria endemic areas have the highest risk of contracting this disease.
Prevention of infectious diseases can be done by using mosquito repellent lotion and not allowing mosquitoes to develop easily, one of which is not making water puddles.
Cholera is a bacterial infection that can cause sufferers to become dehydrated due to severe diarrhea. Cholera transmission usually occurs through contaminated water. If not treated immediately, cholera can be fatal in just a few hours.
Preventive measures include, not living in areas infected with cholera and not eating food and beverages left over from cholera sufferers. In addition, drink bottled mineral water or boiled water. In general, drink bottles, cans, or warm drinks are safer. But before opening the packaging drink, clean the outside first.
Typhus is a group infectious disease that includes various types of fever caused by Salmonella typhi bacterial infections . These bacteria can be carried by ectoparasites such as fleas and mites, then infect humans. Ectoparasites are often found in animals such as rats, cats and squirrels. Some people can also bring it from clothes, sheets, skin or hair.
Prevention of infectious diseases can be done by avoiding direct contact with patients for long periods of time. Also, avoid the habit of using personal items such as towels that can transmit the disease. Don’t forget to take antibiotics prescribed by your doctor and follow the instructions given.
Chickenpox is an infectious disease that can spread quickly and easily. Even though chicken pox is more common in children under 10 years of age, it is possible for adults to get chickenpox.
Prevention of infectious diseases can also be done through vaccination. Provision of regular chickenpox vaccine is recommended to protect people who are at high risk of serious chickenpox or risk transmitting it to many people.
Meanwhile, prevention of the first spread that can be done is to isolate people with chickenpox from public places before all nodules break, dry out, then become sores. This period usually lasts for one week after the appearance of the rash.
Measles is a viral infection that is characterized by the appearance of a rash throughout the body and is very contagious. Measles can be very disturbing and leads to more serious complications.
The best way to prevent infectious diseases is to do immunizations from childhood. There are two immunization options, the first is a measles and MMR special vaccine (combined for measles, mumps and German measles)
If you suffer from measles, avoid crowds at least four days after the appearance of the measles rash for the first time. This is important so that there is no spread of infection to others. Avoid direct contact with people who are susceptible to infection with this virus such as pregnant women under five, and young children.
Coughing is a natural response from the body as an airway defense system if there is interference from the outside. This response functions to clean mucus or irritating factors or irritant material (dust or smoke) to get out of the lungs and upper respiratory tract.
Prevention of infectious diseases can be done by using a mask and not shaking hands with sufferers, because usually people who suffer from coughs or flu will use their hands to close the fluid that comes out either from the mouth or nose.
Sexually transmitted disease
Sexually transmitted diseases or STDs are also known as sexually transmitted infections or STIs are very dangerous infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are generally transmitted through unprotected sex, can be through sperm, vaginal fluids, blood, or other body fluids.
Avoid changing partners and using condoms every time you have sex is prevention that you can do.
Hepatitis is a general term that refers to inflammation that occurs in the liver. This infectious disease is generally caused by a viral infection, although it can also be caused by other conditions. Some causes of hepatitis in addition to viral infections are autoimmune diseases, toxic substances and certain drugs or alcohol consumption habits.
Prevention of infectious diseases can be done by:
- Don’t share toothbrushes, razors or syringes with other people.
- Maintain a clean water source so that it is not contaminated with the hepatitis virus.
- Wash food to be consumed, especially shellfish and oysters, vegetables, and fruits.
- Having safe sex, namely by using a condom, or not changing partners.
- Avoid alcohol consumption.
Besides going through a clean and healthy lifestyle, hepatitis (especially A and B) can be effectively prevented through vaccination. This vaccine can be done in one vaccine or in a different vaccine. But until now, hepatitis C cannot be prevented by vaccines because there are no vaccines available to prevent the disease.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus infection. This virus infects humans through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes . Dengue fever is a seasonal disease that is common in tropical countries and is more common in the rainy season
Prevention of infectious diseases can be done by routinely cleaning the basin containing water or other containers which generally become the place where the mosquitoes nest. Clean these places at least twice a week.
Tuberculosis is the most life-threatening infectious disease. Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that attack the lungs, but these bacteria can also attack other body parts such as bones and joints, the lining of the brain (TB meningitis), lymph nodes (glandular TB), and the lining of the heart. This bacterium is transmitted through the air when a person coughs or sneezes.
Prevention of infectious diseases can be done by wearing a mask while in a crowd, especially if you interact with people with TB, make sure your house has good air circulation, for example, often opening doors and windows so that fresh air and sunlight can enter. In addition, TB can also be prevented through the administration of the BCG vaccine.
Well , that’s an example of an infectious disease that you should be aware of. In general, infectious diseases are more at risk regarding people who have weak immune systems and live in environments with poor hygiene conditions. In addition, infectious diseases can also increase at certain times.